Launcher, Grenade, 40 mm, XM148
XM148 Grenade Launcher
The XM148 grenade launcher.
Type Grenade Launcher
Place of origin United States
Service history
Used by U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, Australia
Wars Vietnam War, 1989 Philippine coup attempt (U.S.A.F. issue)
Production history
Designer Karl R. Lewis
Designed 1964
Manufacturer Colt Firearms
Weight 3 lb (1.36 kg)
Length 16.5 in
Barrel length 10 in

Cartridge 40x46mm grenade
Action Single shot
Muzzle velocity 247 ft/s (74.5 m/s)
Maximum range 437 yd (400 m)
Sights Quadrant sight
Colt AR-15 with XM148 Launcher

The XM148 mounted to an early Colt AR-15 rifle.

The XM148 was an experimental 40 mm grenade launcher developed by Colt Firearms as the CGL-4 (Colt Grenade Launcher). Colt manufactured the launcher for field testing during the Vietnam era.

It was designed for installation below the barrel of M16-type rifles, and was intended to replace the stand-alone M79 correcting the problem of grenadiers relying on pistols as a secondary weapon. After problems with the experimental design were discovered, the XM148 was replaced by AAI Corporation's conceptually similar M203 design, currently the primary grenade launcher used by the US armed forces and others today. Originally made for use with the M16 Rifle, the XM148 was also used by US Special Forces in conjunction with the XM177E2 and the Australian SASR in conjunction with the modified L1A1, nicknamed "the bitch".

The launcher's barrel could slide forward to accept a single 40 mm round into the breech. It came with a primitive version of the quadrant sight later used with the M203. It differed from the later model by featuring an external cocking handle and an extended trigger that allowed the weapon to be fired without removing the hand from the rifle's pistol grip. This same extended trigger was also one source of the weapon's problems as it allowed accidental discharges of a loaded weapon if caught by tree branches, gear, or anything else capable of overcoming the 6 to 11 pound trigger pull.

Another problem with the weapon was that it was overly complicated compared to the M203. It was difficult to disassemble and had many small parts that could be easily lost while cleaning the weapon in the field. Where the M203 broke down into receiver group, barrel group, hand guard group and quadrant sight (the quadrant sight being the smallest piece). The XM148 broke down into barrel, pistol grip, receiver, hand guard, quadrant sight, and several small pins and clips. These issues led the U.S. military to adopt the M203 over the XM148, though the U.S. Air Force did keep a number of the XM148s. In fact U.S. Air Force Security Forces were still being trained on the XM148 in lieu of the M203 as late as 1987. Some security police units still had them in their armories until the 1990s.

The Colt XM148 grenade launcher was created by Colt's Design Project Engineer, gun designer Karl R. Lewis. The May 1967 "Colt's Ink" newsletter announced that he had won a national competition for his selection and treatment of materials in the design. The newsletter stated in part, "In only 47 days, he wrote the specifications, designed the launcher, drew all the original prints, and had a working model built."


  • TM 9-1005-249-14 Technical Manual Rifle, 5.56-mm, M16; Rifle, 5.56-mm, XM16E1; and Launcher, Grenade, 40-mm, XM148 dated 1 August 1966 (reprint)

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