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Table of selected handgun, submachine gun, rifle and machine gun cartridges by year.

Name Date Nation Size
Metric
Comments
.22 Short 1857 USA Oldest commercial cartridge being loaded today.
.44 Henry 1860 USA 11×23mmR a.k.a .44 Rimfire, .44 Long Rimfire, or 11×23mmR.
.577 Snider 1866 United Kingdom 14.5×51mm Rimmed The first black powder cartridge for British military use.
.50 Remington 1867 USA a.k.a 50 Remington Pistol Navy Model 1867 and 50 Remingeon (M71 Army). Rimmed case 0.875" in length. .508 dia.
.450 Adams 1868 United Kingdom a.k.a .450 Boxer and .450 Revolver.
.42 Berdan 1868 Russia 10.7×58mmR a.k.a 4.2 Line Berdan. Designed by American inventor/soldier Hiram Berdan, adpopted by Russia in trapdoor 1868 and turnbolt 1870 Berdan Rifles.
.44 S&W American 1869 USA 11.0×29mm Rimmed
.577/450 Martini-Henry 1871 United Kingdom 11.43×60R (61R)mm Rimmed The second black powder cartridge for British military use. Evolved from the .577 Snider case, lengthened and necked down to .45 (nominal) caliber. Used in the Martini rifles from 1871 to the present.
11×60mm Mauser 1871 Germany 11×60mm Rimmed The first black powder cartridge adopted in large numbers by the unified German Army, it was used in the 1871 and 1871/84 rifles.
.50-90 Sharps 1872 USA The mainstay of the American bison (buffalo) hunter.
.45-70 1873 USA a.k.a .45-70 Government. One of the oldest centerfire cartridges still in commercial production.
.44-40 Winchester 1873 USA .427 dia.
.45 Colt 1873 USA 11.58×32mm a.k.a .45 Long Colt or .45 LC. Used in both pistol and rifle.
11mm Gras 1874 France 11×59mm Rimmed The first French brass cartridge for military use.
.38 S&W 1877 USA 4th or 5th oldest commercial cartridge being loaded today.
.38 Long Colt 1877 USA 9.65mm a.k.a .38 LC.
.32 S&W 1878 USA
.476 Enfield 1880 United Kingdom 11.6mm a.k.a .476 Eley.
11×60mm Murata 1880 Japan 11×60mm Rimmed The first black powder cartridge adopted in large numbers by the Japanese Army, it was used in the Murata rifle, a hybrid of French Gras and German Mausers 1871 and 1871/84 rifles.
8×53Rmm Murata 1880 Japan 8×53mm Rimmed 11×60mm Murata case necked down to 8mm.
.32-20 Winchester 1882 USA
.38-55 Winchester 1884 USA
8mm Lebel 1886 France 8×50mm Rimmed a.k.a 8×50mmR French. Adapted from the 11mm Gras. The first smokeless powder cartridge for military use, started the small-bore smokeless revolution.
.22 Long Rifle 1887 USA Most common cartridge in the world (by units sold).
7.92×57mm Mauser 1888 Germany 7.92×57mm a.k.a 8×57mm Mauser, 8mm Mauser and 8 × 57 IS.
.455 Webley 1889 United Kingdom 11.5mm year of approval
7.5×55mm Swiss 1889 Switzerland 7.5×55mm a.k.a GP-11, 7.5×55mm Schmidt Rubin.
.303 British 1889 United Kingdom 7.7×56mmR
9×57mm Mauser 1890s Germany 9.06×56.8mm
6.5×52mm Mannlicher-Carcano 1891 Italy 6.80×52mm
7.62×54mmR 1891 Russia 7.62×54mm Oldest cartridge still in official military use, used in SVD Dragunov with Russia and the PSL rifles with many other countries.
.30-40 Krag 1892 USA .308 dia.
7×57mm Mauser 1892 Germany 7×57mm
7.63×25mm Mauser 1893 Germany 7.62×25mm Based on 7.65×25mm Borchardt. Most famous for use in Mauser C96 pistol. Basis for 7.62×25mm Tokarev round.
.25-20 Winchester 1895 USA .32-20 Winchester case necked down.
6.5×55mm 1895 Union of Sweden and Norway 6.5×55mm
.30-30 Winchester 1895 USA a.k.a. .30 Winchester Centerfire and .30 WCF. First smokeless cartridge designed for big game hunting.
.450 Nitro Express 1895 United Kingdom J. Rigby smokeless cartridge based upon .450 Black Powder Express.
7.62×38mmR 1895 Russia 7.62×38mmR a.k.a 7.62mm Nagant.
.32 S&W Long 1896 USA Lengthened .32 S&W case.
6.5×50mmSR Arisaka 1897 Japan 6.5×50SR
7.65mm Browning 1899 Belgium 7.65×17mm a.k.a .32 ACP.
7.65×21mm Parabellum 1900 Germany 7.65×21mm a.k.a 7,65 Parabellum, 7.65mm Luger, .30 Parabellum and (wrongly) .30 Luger.
9mm Mars 1900 United Kingdom Bottle necked cartridge for the Webley-Mars Automatic Pistol.
9×19mm Parabellum 1902 Germany 9×19mm a.k.a 9mm Parabellum, 9mm Para, or (incorrectly) 9mm Luger.
.38 Special 1902 USA
.600 Nitro Express 1903 United Kingdom Jeffrey, 900-grain (Bad rounding hereScript error g) bullet 1,950 ft/s (Bad rounding hereScript error m/s) at muzzle.
.45 ACP 1905 USA 11.43×23mm Automatic Colt Pistol, first self-loading U.S. Army pistol round.
9.3×62mm 1905 Germany Designed by Otto Bock for use in magazine rifles, e.g. Mauser 98, for African game.
.32 Winchester Self-Loading 1905 USA a.k.a .32 WSL or .32 SL. Only chambered commercially in the Winchester Model 1905 rifle.
.35 Winchester Self-Loading 1905 USA a.k.a .35 WSL or .35 SL. Only chambered commercially in the Winchester Model 1905 rifle.
.351 Winchester Self-Loading 1906 USA a.k.a .351 WSL or .351 SL. Only chambered commercially in the Winchester Model 1907 rifle.
.35 Remington 1906 USA
.25 ACP 1906 USA 6.35mm
.30-06 Springfield 1906 USA 7.62×63mm
.470 Nitro Express 1907 United Kingdom Designed by Joseph Lang.
.44 Special 1908 USA
2 mm Kolibri 1910 USA 2mm Smallest round ever manufactured.
.401 Winchester Self-Loading 1910 USA 10.31×38mm a.k.a .401 WSL or .401 SL. Only chambered commercially in the Winchester Model 1910 and the Belgian Clement-Neumann rifle.
.416 Rigby 1911 United Kingdom 10.6×74mm Later used parent cartridge of the .338 Lapua Magnum.
9mm Browning Short 1912 Belgium 9×17mm a.k.a .380 Auto, .380 ACP.
.375 Holland & Holland Magnum 1912 United Kingdom The rimmed .375 H&H Flanged Magnum for double-guns and the .375 H&H Belted Rimless Magnum with a headspacing belt for magazine-fed rifles were released simultaneously in 1912.
.250-3000 Savage 1915 USA 3,000 ft/s (Bad rounding hereScript error m/s)
.300 Savage 1920 USA
.50 BMG 1921 USA 12.7×99mm Used in Heavy Machine Guns and anti-materiel rifles.
7.5×57mm MAS 1924 France 7.8×57mm a.k.a 7.5×54mm French. Used in fusil-mitrailleur mle 1924.
.270 Winchester 1925 USA
.38 Super 1929 USA a.k.a .38 Super and .38 Colt Auto.
.22 Hornet 1930 USA First centerfire cartridge widely adapted for varmint hunting.
7.92mm DS 1934 Poland 7.92×107mm Used for kbk ppanc wz.35 anti-tank rifle.
.357 Magnum 1935 USA Lengthened .38 Special, most powerful handgun round after .44 Walker.
.220 Swift 1935 USA
.348 Winchester 1936 USA One of the most powerful rimmed cartridges ever used in a lever rifle.Script error[citation needed]
7.92×33mm Kurz 1938 Germany First assault rifle round, used in MKb 42.
.218 Bee 1938 USA
7.35×51mm Carcano 1938 Italy
6.5×68mm 1939 Germany
8×68mm S 1939 Germany
7.7×58mm Arisaka 1939 Japan
.30 Carbine 1940 USA 7.62×33mm
7.62×39mm 1943 USSR 7.92×33mm Kurz case lengthened and necked down. .311 dia.
.280 British 1948 United Kingdom 7mm a.k.a 7mm FN Short. Intermediate round adopted in 1951.
.222 Remington 1950 USA
7.62×51mm NATO 1950 Belgium/USA NATO (1953), T65 .308
.308 Winchester 1955 USA Civilian 7.62mm NATO
.44 Magnum 1955 USA a.k.a .44 Remington Magnum. Lengthened .44 Special.
.223 Remington 1955 USA Lengthened .222 Remington
.243 Winchester 1955 USA 6×51mm .308 Winchester case necked down to 6mm.
.458 Winchester Magnum 1956 USA
.280 Remington 1957 USA .30-06 Springfield case necked down to 7mm.
.460 Weatherby 1958 USA .458 dia.
.454 Casull 1959 USA Lengthened .45 Colt, most powerful handgun round until 1990s.
5.56×45mm NATO 1960 USA
.256 Winchester Magnum 1962 USA .357 Magnum case necked down to .257".
7mm Remington Magnum 1962 USA
.221 Remington Fireball 1963 USA
.300 Winchester Magnum 1963 USA
.41 Remington Magnum 1964 USA
.444 Marlin 1964 USA Lengthened .44 Magnum case. .429 dia.
.22-250 Remington 1965 USA Varminter
5 mm Remington Rimfire Magnum 1970 USA 5mm (.2045)
.44 AMP 1971 USA a.k.a .44 Auto Mag Pistol. .429 dia.
.30 Herrett 1973 USA Shortened .30-30 Winchester.
5.45×39mm 1974 USSR Developed for AK-74. .215 dia.
.22 PPC 1974 USA
6 mm PPC 1975 USA .22 PPC case necked up to 6mm.
6.5 mm JDJ 1978 USA .225 Winchester case necked up to 6.5mm and then blown out.
.45 Magnum 1979 USA a.k.a .45 Winchester Magnum. Lengthened and strengthened .45 ACP.
5.56×45mm NATO SS109 1979 Belgium NATO (1980), 2nd gen.
7mm-08 Remington 1980 USA .308 Winchester case necked down to 7mm (.284").
.307 Winchester 1982 USA Rimmed version of the .308 Winchester, for use in lever-action rifles.
10mm Auto 1983 Sweden
.338 Lapua Magnum 1983 Finland 8.6×70mm Designed for military sniper rifles.
.32 H&R Magnum 1984 USA Lengthened .32 S&W Long.
.41 Action Express 1986 USA
5.6mm Gw Pat 90 1987 Switzerland 5.6×45mm Swiss military version of the 5.56×45mm NATO. For SIG-Sauer 550, 551, and 552.
5.8×42mm DBP87 1987 China 5.8×42mm
.416 Remington Magnum 1988 USA
.50 Action Express 1988 USA For IMI Desert Eagle.
.700 Nitro Express 1988 United Kingdom Big game cartridge.
.40 S&W 1990 USA
FN 5.7×28mm 1990 Belgium 5.7×28mm Bottlenecked high velocity PDW cartridge designed by FN Herstal in conjunction with the FN P90 personal defense weapon and FN Five-seven pistol.
.357 SIG 1994 Germany/USA
.224 Boz 1997 United Kingdom 5.56×23mm 10mm Auto case necked down to 5.56mm.
.400 Corbon 1997 USA .45 ACP case necked down to .40 caliber.
.450 Marlin 2000 USA Shortened .458 Winchester Magnum case, designed to match .45-70 performance.
HK 4.6×30mm 2000 Germany Bottlenecked high velocity PDW cartridge designed by Heckler & Koch in conjunction with the Heckler & Koch MP7 personal defense weapon.
.480 Ruger 2001 USA Shortened .475 Linebaugh case.
.300 WSM 2001 USA Winchester Short Magnum
.408 Cheyenne Tactical 2001 USA Used in Cheyenne Tactical's M200 Intervention, and M310 rifles.
.270 WSM 2002 USA Winchester Short Magnum
7mm WSM 2002 USA Winchester Short Magnum
.32 NAA 2002 USA North American Arms
.375 RUM 2002 USA A beltless, rebated rim cartridge developed by Remington Arms by necking up the .300 Remington Ultra Magnum case.
.400 H&H Magnum 2003 United Kingdom
.465 H&H Magnum 2003 United Kingdom
6.5 Grendel 2003 USA 6.5×39mm Developed by Alexander Arms as a "low recoil, high accuracy, long-range cartridge for the AR-15 platform."
6.8 mm Remington SPC 2003 USA 6.8×43mm Developed by Remington with members of 5th Special Forces Group.
.223 WSSM 2003 USA Winchester Super Short Magnum
.243 WSSM 2003 USA Winchester Super Short Magnum
.45 GAP 2003 Austria Glock Automatic Pistol
.500 S&W Magnum 2003 USA One of the most powerful handgun-specific cartridges.
.204 Ruger 2004 USA 5.18mm
.25 WSSM 2004 USA 6.35mm Winchester Super Short Magnum
.325 WSM 2005 USA 8×53mm Winchester Short Magnum
.460 S&W Magnum 2005 USA Revolver cartridge for handgun hunting.
.416 Barrett 2006 USA 10.3mm Designed as an alternative to the .50 BMG for sniper rifles.
.308 Marlin Express 2006 USA 7.62×48mm (unofficial) Based upon a slightly shortened .308 Winchester cases with FTX bullets and special powder to approach .308 ballistics from a Marlin lever action rifle.
.17 Remington Fireball 2007 USA 4.368 High-performance approx 4,000 ft/s (Bad rounding hereScript error m/s) in a small case.
.375 Ruger 2007 USA Developed in collaboration between Ruger and Hornady.Script error[citation needed]
.300 Ruger Compact Magnum 2007 USA Based on .375 Ruger case.
.338 Ruger Compact Magnum 2007 USA Based on .375 Ruger case.
.327 Federal Magnum 2008 USA 7.9mm
300 AAC Blackout 2011 USA 7.62×35mm Developed for suppressed CQB as a sub sonic round. Supersonic is also available.

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