Operation Arc Light was the 1965 deployment of B-52D Stratofortresses as conventional bombers from bases in the US to Guam to support ground combat operations in Vietnam. By extension, Arc Light, and sometimes Arclight, is the code name and general term for the use of B-52 Stratofortress as a close air support (CAS) platform to support ground tactical operations assisted by ground-control-radar detachments of the 1st Combat Evaluation Group (1CEVG) in Operation Combat SkySpot during the Vietnam War.
In 1964, the U.S. Air Force began to train strategic bomber crews in the delivery of conventional munitions. Under Project Big Belly, all B-52Ds were modified so that they could carry nearly 30 tons of conventional bombs. B-52s were deployed to air force bases in Guam and Thailand. Arc Light operations were most often CAS bombing raids of enemy base camps, troops concentrations, and supply lines.
The first use of these heavy bombers in Southeast Asia occurred on 18 June 1965. Flying out of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, twenty-seven aircraft used 750 and 1,000 pound bombs to attack a Viet Cong stronghold. During this mission two B-52Fs were lost in a mid-air collision; another was unable to conduct air refueling. Missions were commonly flown in three-plane formations known as "cells" and were also employed when ground units in heavy combat requested fire support. Releasing their bombs from high in the stratosphere, the B-52s could neither be seen nor heard from the ground as they inflicted horrific damage. B-52s were instrumental in nearly wiping out enemy concentrations besieging Khe Sanh in 1968 and An Loc and Kontum in 1972.
Arc Light missions continued until the cessation of hostilities by all U.S. forces on August 15, 1973. Between June 1965 and August 1973, 126,615 B-52 sorties were flown over Southeast Asia. During those operations, the U.S. Air Force lost 31 B-52s: 18 from hostile fire over North Vietnam and 13 from operational causes.
Combat SkySpot MemorialEdit
Nineteen technicians of the 1CEVG were lost in ground combat. On September 21, 2010, President Barack H. Obama presented the Medal of Honor to the sons of Chief Master Sergeant Richard L. Etchberger for his actions in the battle of Lima Site 85. A memorial to all 1CEVG technicians is located directly behind the Arc Light memorial. Arc Light was re-activated on Andersen on February 8, 1972 when president Nixon resumed bombing of north Vietnam targets in an effort to move peace talks along. Over 15,000 men were sent to Andersen on temporary duty over the next 90 days. With limited barracks and other facilities tents were set up behind for use by men working 80 hour weeks.
In popular cultureEdit
- There is a brief reference to 'Operation Arc Light' in the film Apocalypse Now by the character "Captain Willard", played by Martin Sheen. As the river boat (PBR) carrying Willard is moving up the coast to rendezvous with the air cavalry escort, they hear the rumble of a B-52 strike in the distance. When the character "Chef" asks what's going on, Willard replies, "Arc Light, B-52 strike".
- In the video game Men of Valor, while at a besieged Khe Sahn, Dean and Hoss are informed that Dean's brother Jamie's squad is being overrun by NVA regulars and that they just called in an Arc Light on their own position. Later on after safely returning to Khe Sanh the Marines witness a B-52 strike up close.
- In the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops, an Arc Light strike occurs on the NVA troops at the end of the level "S.O.G."