| Pistolet-Mitrailleur de 9 mm modèle 1949|
MAT-49 on display
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||French and Communist forces|
|Wars||First Indochina War, Vietnam War|
|Variants||MAT-49/54 (police variant), 7.62x25mm Tokarev (VPA converted)</br>silenced variant|
|Weight||3.5 kg (without magazine), 4.17 kg (with 32 round magazine)|
|Length||460 mm / 720 mm|
|Barrel length||230 mm|
|Cartridge||9x19mm Parabellum, 7.62x25mm Tokarev (VPA converted)|
|Rate of fire||600 rpm (9x19mm Parabellum), 900 rpm (7.62x25mm Tokarev)|
|Feed system||20, 32 rounds|
In 1949, after evaluating several prototypes (including a collapsible design from Hotchkiss), the French MAT factory began production of the MAT-49 9 mm submachine gun. The MAT-49 used a machine stamping process which allowed the economical production of large numbers of submachine guns, then urgently required by the French Government for use by Army, French Foreign Legion as well as airborne and colonial forces. Production continued at Tulle until the mid 1960s, then switched to the Manufacture d'Armes de St-Etienne plant (MAS), where the weapon was produced until 1979. In that same year, the French armed forces adopted the FAMAS 5.56 mm assault rifle, and the MAT-49 was gradually phased out of service.
The MAT-49 saw widespread combat use during the First Indochina War and the Algerian War, as well as the 1956 Suez Crisis. The weapon found considerable favor with airborne and mechanized troops, who prized it for its firepower and compactness.
After French forces left Indochina, the VPA and Viet Minh converted many captured MAT-49s to the Soviet 7.62 mm Tokarev pistol cartridge, then available in large quantities from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. These converted versions could be distinguished by a longer barrel, a curved 35-round magazine and a higher rate of fire at 900 rpm.
The MAT-49 had a short, retractable wire stock, which when extended gave the weapon a length of 720 mm (28.3 inches), and the magazine well and magazine could be folded forward parallel to the barrel for parachute jump or with a 45° angle hence allowing a safe carry until the magazine well is brought back to vertical position before opening fire. Barrel length is 230 mm (9 inches), with some police-issue weapons manufactured with extended barrels and non-retractable wooden stocks. As issued, the MAT-49 fires a 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge, using a single-column 20-round magazine for desert use or 32-round similar to the Sten magazine.
The MAT-49 is blowback-operated and box magazine-fed, with a rate of fire of 600 rounds per minute on full auto. The MAT 49/54, a modified MAT-49s manufactured for police forces, had two triggers, allowing use of full-auto fire or single shots, but most were manufactured as full-auto only. Minus magazine, the MAT-49 weighs about 3.5 kilograms (7.7 pounds), which makes it somewhat heavy for a submachine gun. The weapon incorporates a grip safety which is located on the backside of the pistol grip. The rear sights are flip-up and "L"-shaped, and marked for a range of 50 and 100 meters. Production ceased after the introduction of the FAMAS assault rifle in 1979.
- MAS-48 - prototype variant.
- MAT-49 - main variant.
- MAT-49/54 - gendarme variant with extended barrel and fixed stock.
- MAT-49 silenced - variant fitted with a suppressor.