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Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14
M14 rifle - USA - 7,62x51mm - Armémuseum
M14 rifle without magazine
Type Battle rifle, designated marksman rifle, sniper rifle
Place of origin 22x20px United States
Service history
In service 1959–present
Used by See Users
Wars Vietnam War–present
Production history
Designed 1954
Produced 1959–1964[1][2]
Number built 1.5 million [3]
Variants M14E1, M14E2/M14A1, M14K, M21, M25, Mk 14 EBR, M1A rifle
Specifications
Weight 9.8 lb (4.4 kg) empty
11.5 lb (5.2 kg) w/ loaded magazine
Length 46.5 in (1,181 mm)
Barrel length 22 in (559 mm)

Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 Winchester)
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 700–750 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Effective range 460 m (500 yd)[4]
800+ m (875+ yd) (with optics)
Feed system 20-round detachable box magazine or 50-round coil magazine[5]
Sights Aperture rear sight, "barleycorn" front sight

M14 rifle, formally the United States Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14,[6] is an American selective fire automatic rifle firing 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 Winchester) ammunition. It was the standard issue U.S. rifle from 1959 to 1970.[7] The M14 was used for U.S. Army and Marine Corps basic and advanced individual training, and was the standard issue infantry rifle in CONUS, Europe, and South Korea, until replaced by the M16 rifle in 1970. The M14 remains in limited front line service with the United States Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard, and is also used as a ceremonial weapon. It was the last American "battle rifle" (a term applied to weapons firing full-power rifle ammunition) issued in quantity to U.S. troops. The M14 also provides the basis for the M21 and M25 sniper rifles.

HistoryEdit

Early developmentEdit

The M14 was developed from a long line of experimental weapons based upon the M1 rifle. Although the M1 was among the most advanced infantry rifles of the late 1930s, it was not a perfect weapon. Modifications were beginning to be made to the basic M1 rifle's design since the twilight of World War II. Changes included adding fully automatic firing capability and replacing the 8-round en bloc clips with a detachable box magazine holding 20 rounds. Winchester, Remington, and Springfield Armory's own John Garand offered different conversions. Garand's design, the T20, was the most popular, and T20 prototypes served as the basis for a number of Springfield test rifles from 1945 through the early 1950s.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

T25 Experimental Rifle

T25 prototype

Earle Harvey of Springfield Armory designed a completely different rifle, the T25, for the new .30 Light Rifle cartridge. The latter was based upon .30-06 cartridge case cut down to the length of the .300 Savage case. The .30 Light Rifle eventually evolved into the 7.62x51mm NATO and the commercial .308 Winchester round. Although shorter than the .30-06, the 7.62x51mm NATO round retained the same power due to the use of modern propellants.[8] In the background, Lloyd Corbett was tasked with developing .30 Light Rifle conversions for the M1 rifle and later the T20 prototypes. After a series of prototype designs, the T44 surfaced. The earliest T44 prototypes simply used T20 receivers fitted with magazine filler blocks and re-barreled for 7.62mm NATO, and replacing the long operating rod/piston of the M1 with the T25's shorter "gas expansion and cut-off" system. Later T44 prototypes used newly fabricated receivers shorter than either the M1 or T20; the new action's length was matched to the shorter 7.62mm NATO round instead of the longer .30-06.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

Infantry Board Service Rifle trialsEdit

The T44 participated in a competitive service rifle competition against the Springfield T47 (a modified T25) and Fabrique Nationale's "Fusil Automatique Leger" (French for "Light Automatic Rifle"), designated T48.[9] The T47 and EM2 were dropped from consideration in 1952.[10] During 1952-53, testing proved the T48 and the T44 roughly comparable in performance, with the T48 holding an advantage in ease of field stripping and dust resistance, as well as a longer product development lead time.[9][10] A Newsweek article in July 1953 hinted that the T48/FAL might be selected over the T44.[10][11] In December 1953, both rifles competed in the arctic rifle trials.[9][12] Springfield Armory engineers, anxious to ensure the selection of the T44, had been specially preparing and modifying the test T44 rifles for weeks with the aid of the Armory's Cold Chamber, including redesign of the T44 gas regulator and custom modifications to magazines and other parts to reduce friction and seizing in extreme cold.[9][12]. The T48 rifles received no such special preparation, and began to experience gas system problems during the trials.[9][12] FN engineers opened the gas ports in an attempt to improve functioning, but this caused early/violent extraction and broken parts as a result of the increased pressures.[9][12] As a result, the T44 was ranked by the arctic test staff as decidedly superior in cold weather operation.[9]

In the end, the T44 was selected over the T48/FAL primarily because of weight (the T44 was a pound lighter than the T48), simplicity (the T44 had fewer parts), the T44's self-compensating gas system, and the argument that the T44 could be manufactured on existing machinery built for the M1 rifle (a concept that later turned out to be unworkable).[9][12][10][13] In 1957, the U.S. formally adopted the T44 as the U.S. infantry service rifle, designated M14.[10]

Production contractsEdit

Initial production contracts for the M-14 were awarded to the Springfield Armory, Winchester, and Harrington & Richardson.[14] Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge Inc. (TRW) would later be awarded a production contract for the rifle as well.[14] Standard service rifles were produced from 1959 to 1964.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

National Match M14Edit

The National Match M14 was produced in 1962 and 1963 by Springfield Armory, and in 1964 by TRW. Springfield Armory upgraded a number of service-grade rifles in 1965 and 1966 to National Match specifications. Upgrading was also carried out in 1967 at the Rock Island Arsenal. These M14 variants are to this day capable of extreme long-range accuracy. Roughly 8,000 service rifles were modified to NM standards during 1965–1967. A total of more than 11,000 National Match rifles were delivered by Springfield Armory and TRW during 1962–1964.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

Production M14 rifles made by Springfield Armory and Winchester used forged receivers and bolts milled from AINSI 8620 steel, a low-carbon molybdenum-chromium steel.[14] Harrington & Richardson M-14 production used AINSI 8620 steel as well, except for ten receivers milled from AINSI 1330 low-carbon steel and a single receiver made from high-nickel-content alloy steel.[14]

DeploymentEdit

T47 Experimental Rifle

Experimental T47 rifle

After the M14's adoption, Springfield Armory began tooling a new production line in 1958, delivering the first service rifles to the U.S. Army in July 1959. However, long production delays resulted in the 101st Airborne Division being the only unit in the Army fully equipped with the M14 by the end of 1961. The Fleet Marine Force finally completed the change from M1 to M14 in late 1962. Springfield Armory records reflect that M14 manufacture ended as TRW, fulfilling its second contract, delivered its final production increment in Fiscal Year 1965 (1 July '64 – 30 June '65). The Springfield archive also indicates the 1.38 million rifles were acquired for just over $143 million, for a unit cost of about $104.[1][2]

JunctionCity1967SupplyDrop

A U.S. soldier with an M14 watches as supplies are dropped in Vietnam during 1967.

The rifle served adequately during its brief tour of duty in Vietnam.[15] Though it was unwieldy in the thick brush due to its length and weight, the power of the 7.62 mm NATO cartridge allowed it to penetrate cover quite well and reach out to extended range, developing 2,470 ft·lbf (3,350 J) of muzzle energy. However, there were several drawbacks to the M14. The traditional wood stock of the rifle had a tendency to swell and expand in the heavy moisture of the jungle, adversely affecting accuracy. Fiberglass stocks were produced to resolve this problem, but the rifle was discontinued before very many could be distributed for field use. Also, because of the M14's powerful 7.62x51 mm cartridge, the weapon was deemed virtually uncontrollable in fully automatic mode, so most M14s were permanently set to semi-automatic fire only to avoid wasting ammunition in combat.[16][17][18]

The M14 was developed as a means of taking the place of four different weapons systems—the M1 rifle, the M1 Carbine, the M3 "Grease Gun" and the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR). It was thought that in this manner the M14 could simplify the logistical requirements of the troops if it took the place of four weapons. It proved to be an impossible task to replace all four, and the weapon was even deemed "completely inferior" to the World War II M1 in a September 1962 report by the comptroller of the Department of Defense.[19] The cartridge was too powerful for the submachine gun role and the weapon was simply too light to serve as a light machine gun replacement for the BAR.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed] (The M60 machine gun better served this specific task.)

M14 rifle - USA - 7,62x51mm - Special presentation rifle, Serial No 0010 - Armémuseum

A rare M14 presentation model, serial #0010

ReplacementEdit

The M14 remained the primary infantry weapon in Vietnam until it was replaced by the M16 in 1966–1967. Further procurement of the M14 was abruptly halted in late 1963 due to the above mentioned Department of Defense report which had also stated that the AR-15 (soon to be M16) was superior to the M14 (DOD did not cancel FY 1963 orders not yet delivered). After the report, a series of tests and reports by the United States Department of the Army followed that resulted in the decision to cancel the M14.[19] The M16 was then ordered as a replacement for the M14 by direction of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1964, over the objection of those Army officers who had backed the M14 (other factions within the Army research and development community had opposed the M14 and the 7.62x51 mm round from the start). Though production of the M14 was officially discontinued, some disgruntled troops still managed to hang on to them while deriding the M16 as a frail and under-powered "Mattel toy"[20] or "poodle shooter". In January 1968 the U.S. Army designated the M16 as the "Standard A" rifle, and the M14 became a "Limited Standard" weapon. The M14 rifle remained the standard rifle for U.S. Army Basic Training and troops stationed in Europe until 1970.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

The U.S. Army also converted several M14s into the M21 sniper rifle, which remained standard issue for this purpose until the adoption of the M24 SWS in 1988.

Post-1970 U.S. military serviceEdit

Sniper rifle

An Army marksman in Fallujah, Iraq, using an M14 with a Leupold LR/T 10×40 mm M3.

In the mid-1990s, the Marine Corps chose a new rifle for DM use, an M14 modified by the Precision Weapons Shop in Marine Corps Base Quantico called the Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR). It is intended for use by security teams (SRTs, FAST companies), and Marine Scout Snipers in the cases where a semi-automatic rifle would be more appropriate than the standard bolt-action M40A1/A3 rifle. The USMC Rifle Team uses the M14 in shooting competitions. Although the M14 was phased out as the standard-issue rifle by 1970, M14 variants are still used by various branches of the U.S. Military as well as other armed forces, especially as a sniper rifle and as a designated marksman rifle, due to its excellent accuracy and effectiveness at long range. Special active units such as the OPFOR units of the Joint Readiness Training Center use M14s. Few M14s were in use in the Army until the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Since the start of these conflicts, many M14s have been employed as designated marksman and sniper rifles. These are not M21 rifles, but original production M14s. Common modifications include scopes, fiberglass stocks, and other accessories.[21] A 2009 study conducted by the U.S. Army revealed that half of the engagements in Afghanistan occurred from beyond 300 meters (Bad rounding here{{#invoke:Math|precision_format| 328.08398950131 | 1-2 }} yd).[22] America’s 5.56x45 mm NATO service rifles are ineffective at these ranges; this has prompted the reissue of thousands of M14s.[23]

M 14 prone flash suppressor bipod

A USMC Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR) in use

US Navy 090107-N-3392P-065 Gunner's Mate Seaman James Clarke fires a shot line to the Military Sealift Command dry cargo-ammunition ship USNS Lewis and Clark (T-AKE 1)

A Gunner's Mate using an M14 rifle to fire a shot line from the USS Carter Hall to USNS Lewis and Clark.

The 1st Battalion of the 3rd United States Infantry Regiment ("The Old Guard") in the Military District of Washington is the sole remaining regular United States Army combat field unit where the M14 is still issued as the standard rifle, along with a chromed bayonet and an extra wooden stock with white sling for military funerals, parades, and other ceremonies. The United States Air Force Honor Guard uses a version of the M14 specially modified by the Air Force Gunsmith that prevents semi-automatic fire; members have to manually cycle a new round by pulling on the charging handle every time they fire.[24] The United States Navy Ceremonial Guard and Base Honor Guards also use the M14 for 3-volley salutes in military funerals. It is also the drill and parade rifle of the United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, United States Air Force Academy, The Citadel, Norwich University, Virginia Military Institute, and North Georgia College and State University.[25] U.S. Navy ships carry several M14s in their armories. They are issued to sailors going on watch out on deck in port, and to Backup Alert Forces. The M14 is also used to shoot a large rubber projectile to another ship when underway to start the lines over for alongside refueling and replenishment.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

SEAL with M14

A SEAL operator with an M14 rifle participating in maritime interdiction enforcement during Operation Desert Storm.

Various sniper variants have been used by the United States Navy SEALs, often mistaken with M21 in the overt literature, only one of them has received a standard name in the U.S. military designations system: the M25, developed by the Special Forces. These sniper variants have probably been replaced by the Mk 11 Mod 0, selected in 2000. SEALs also use the Mk 14 Mod 0 EBR (Enhanced Battle Rifle) for close-quarters battle and in a designated marksman role. "Delta Force" units are known to have used M14 sniper variants. According to Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, the well-known account of the Battle of Mogadishu, at least one of the "D-Boys", Sergeant First Class Randy Shughart, used an M14 for sniping from helicopters to provide support fire to ground troops. His M14 was possibly fitted with an Aimpoint 3000 sight.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

The U.S. Army Special Forces ("Green Berets") have made some use of the M25 "spotter rifle". The M25 was developed in the late 1980s within the 10th Special Forces Group, which was charged to support Special Forces sniper weapons as well as the Special Operations Target Interdiction Course (SOTIC). The M25 was first planned as a replacement for the old M21, but after the Army adoption of the M24 SWS as its standard sniper rifle, the M25 was intended to be used by spotters of the sniper teams, while the snipers would use the bolt-action M24. Tests had shown that the M24 and M25 have the same precision when using the same M118 ammunition.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

Though the M14 has remained in service longer than any U.S. infantry rifle with the exception of the Springfield M1903 rifle, it also holds the distinction of serving as the standard infantry rifle of the U.S. Army for a shorter span of time than almost any other service rifle, staying as standard issue two years longer than the Springfield Model 1892-99.{{#invoke:Namespace detect|main}}[citation needed]

Service with non-U.S. nationsEdit

The Philippine government issues M14 rifles, as well as M1 carbines, M1 rifles and M16 rifles, to their civilian defense forces and to various cadet corps in their service academies. The Greek Navy also uses the M14.

M14 production tooling was sold in 1967 to the Republic of China (Taiwan), who in 1968 began producing their Type 57 Rifle. The State Arsenal of the Republic of China produced over 1 million of these rifles from 1969 to the present under model numbers of M305 and M14S.

In China, Norinco and Poly Technologies have produced M14 variants in the past for export, which were sold in the United States prior to the enactment of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.[26] They are currently being sold in Canada and New Zealand only.[27] They have been marketed under the M14S[28] and M305[29] names.

Variants and related designsEdit

MilitaryEdit

M15Edit

The M15 was a modified M14 developed as a replacement for the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle for use as a squad automatic weapon. It added a heavier barrel and stock, a hinged buttplate, a selector switch for fully automatic fire, and a bipod. The sling was from the BAR. Like the M14, it was chambered for 7.62x51mm NATO.

Firing tests showed that the M14, when equipped with the selector switch, hinged buttplate and bipod, performed as well as the M15. As a result, the M15 was dropped and the modified M14 became the squad automatic weapon. Accuracy and control problems with this variant led to the addition of a pistol grip, a folding rubber covered metal foregrip and a muzzle stabilizer. The final design was designated as the M14A1.

M14E1Edit

The M14E1 was tested with a variety of folding stocks to provide better maneuverability and the like for armored infantry, paratroopers and others. No variant was standardized.

M14E2/M14A1Edit

Selective fire version of the standard M14 used as a squad automatic weapon. Successor to the short-lived M15 rifle. The developmental model was known as the M14E2. First designated as M14E2 when it was issued in 1963 and redesignated as M14A1 in 1966.

M14M (Modified)/M14NM (National Match)Edit

The M14M is a semi-automatic only version of the standard M14 and was developed for use in civilian rifle marksmanship activities such as the Civilian Marksmanship Program. M14M rifles were converted from existing M14 rifles by welding the select-fire mechanism to prevent full-automatic firing. The M14NM (National Match) is an M14M rifle built to National Match accuracy standards.

The M14M and M14NM rifles are described in a (now-obsolete) Army regulation, AR 920-25, "Rifles, M14M and M14NM, For Civilian Marksmanship Use," dated 8 February 1965. Paragraph 2, among other things, stated that the Director of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division, Internal Revenue Service, Department of the Treasury (predecessor to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives) had ruled that M14M and M14NM rifles so modified would not be subject to the 1934 National Firearms Act (NFA) and, as such, could be sold or issued to civilians. However, with the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968, the NFA was amended to prohibit sales of previously modified automatic weapons such as the M14M and M14NM to civilians.

M14 SMUDEdit

CSA-2006-10-17-093634

A soldier using an M14 Mod 0 EBR equipped with a Sage M14ALCS chassis stock provides security in Iraq, 2006.

Stand-off Munition Disruption, used by Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel to destroy unexploded ordnance. Essentially an M14 National Match rifle with scope.

Mk 14 EBREdit

Shorter (18 inch barrel), more tactical version of the M14, with a retractable stock and multiple rails for more accessories.

M14 TacticalEdit

Modified M14 using the same stock as the Mk 14 but with a 22 inch barrel and a Smith Enterprise muzzle brake, used by the U.S. Coast Guard.

M14 Designated Marksman RifleEdit

Modified designated marksman version of the M14, used by the U.S. Marine Corps.

M39 Enhanced Marksman RifleEdit

Modified M14 DMR fitted with the same stock as Mk 14, used by the U.S. Marine Corps.

M89SR Model 89 Sniper RifleEdit

An M14 in bullpup configuration first introduced by Sardius in the 1980s. Later produced by Technical Equipment International (TEI) for the IDF

AWC G2A Sniper RifleEdit

Modified M14 with bullpup stock designed by Lynn McWilliams and Gale McMillian in the late 1990s. Produced and delivered for testing at the Fort Bragg sniper school.

M21, M25 sniper riflesEdit

The M21 and M25 are accurized sniper rifle versions, built to closer tolerances than the standard M14. These are the more-standard sniper rifle variants of the M14.

Commercial productionEdit

CBP M14

A U.S. Border Patrol Agent with M14 during a law enforcement memorial service.


La France Specialties M14KEdit

The M14K is a commercial version of the M14 designed and built by Timothy F. LaFrance of La France Specialties of San Diego, California, most using forged receivers produced by Smith Enterprise of Tempe, Arizona. This rifle has a custom-made short barrel with a custom-made flash suppressor, shortened operating rod, and employs a unique gas tube system. Fully automatic versions have a removable flash suppressor. Semi-automatic versions (of which very few were made) have a silver-brazed flash hider to comply with the requirement that Title I firearms have a 16" barrel. Most M14Ks employ the M60 gas tube system. Some late-model M14Ks employ a custom-designed and manufactured gas system. Both are intended to control the rate of fire in fully automatic mode. The rear sight is a custom-made National Match type aperture, and the front sight is a custom-made narrow blade, wing-protected sight to take advantage of the additional accuracy afforded by the special barrel.

The stocks and handguards on M14Ks are shortened versions of the GI birch or walnut stock, but make use of the original front ferrule. The front sling mount is relocated slightly to rear, to accommodate the shortened stock. Most handguards are of the solid, fiberglass variety (albeit shortened), but a limited number were made with shortened wood handguards. The steel buttplate was deleted in favor of a rubber recoil paid, that greatly reduces perceived recoil. A limited number of M14Ks were manufactured with the BM-59 Alpine / Para folding stock. These too had the shortened stocks and handguards, making for an extremely compact package especially suited to vehicular and airborne operations. A couple of M14Ks were built for SEAL Team members using the tubular folding stock assembly on a cut-down M14E2 stock found on some of the Team's full-size M14s prior to adoption of the Sage International EBR stock for M14 applications. These are by far one of the rarest variants of the M14K.

Springfield ArmoryEdit

Springfield Armory, Inc. of Geneseo, IL, produces a semi-automatic-only version of the M14 rifle. The standard rifle is known as the M1A. The company produces several variations of the basic rifle with different stocks, barrel weights, barrel lengths, and other optional features. The Springfield M1A and its model variants have been widely distributed in the U.S. civilian market.

Springfield Armory, Inc. also produce the SOCOM series and the Scout Squad Rifle, based on the short-barreled version of the M14. The SOCOM 16 comes with provisions to mount a red dot sight and the SOCOM II adds railed handguards to the package. Springfield Armory's M21 tactical is a civilian version of the M21 Sniper Weapon System currently in use by the U.S. military.[30]

Rifle designEdit

M-14 rifle demonstration

A soldier demonstrates shooting an M14 rifle to Iraqi Highway Patrol (IHP) police officers during training in Iraq, 2006.

Receiver markingsEdit

Stamped into receiver heel:

  • U.S. Rifle
  • 7.62-MM M14
  • Springfield Armory (or commercial contractor name)
  • Serial number

StockEdit

The M14 rifle was first furnished with a walnut stock, then with birch and finally with a synthetic stock. Original equipment walnut and birch stocks carry the Department of Defense acceptance stamp or cartouche (an arc of three stars above a spread-winged eagle). These stocks also carried a proof stamp, a P within a circle, applied after successful test-firing.

Rifles manufactured through late 1960 were provided with walnut handguards. Thereafter synthetic, slotted (ventilated) hand guards were furnished but proved too fragile for military use. These were replaced by the solid synthetic part still in use, usually in dark brown, black or a camouflage pattern.

RiflingEdit

Soldiers patrol Waygul Valley 2009

An International Security Assistance Force soldier scans for activity during a combat patrol in Afghanistan, 2009.

Standard M14 rifling has right-hand twist in 1:12 inches with 4 grooves.

AccessoriesEdit

Although M14 rifle production ended in 1964, the limited standard status of the weapon resulted in the continued manufacture of accessories and spare parts into the late 1960s and beyond.

  • M6 bayonet with M8A1 sheath
  • M2 Bandolier
  • Sling [one-piece cotton or nylon webbing or M1907 (two-piece leather)]
  • Cleaning kit (butt-trap) included a combination tool, ratchet chamber brush, plastic lubricant case, brass bore brush, four cleaning rod sections, cleaning rod case, and a cleaning rod patch-holding tip.
  • M5 winter trigger and winter safety
  • M12 blank firing attachment and M3 breech shield
  • Cartridge clip (five cartridges) and magazine filler for charging magazines
  • M1961 ammunition magazine pouch
  • M2 bipod
  • M79 grenade launcher
  • M15 grenade launcher sight
  • Mk 87 Mod 0/1 line (rope) throwing kit

Types of sightsEdit

  • Rear peep, front blade, metric
  • Rear National Match peep with hood, front National Match blade, metric

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
  2. 2.0 2.1 {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
  3. Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  4. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  5. www.xs-products.com
  6. Headquarters, Department of the Army. TM 9-1005-223-10, Operator's Manual for Rifle, 7.62-mm, M14, W/E (1005-589-1271); Rifle, 7.62-MM, M14A1, W/E (1005-072-5011); Bipod, Rifle, M2 (1005–71 1–6202) w/ Change 2. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1973
  7. FM 23-8, 1969
  8. M14 rifle / Mk.14 Mod.0 Enhanced Battle rifle (USA) world.guns.ru
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Stevens, R. Blake, The FAL Rifle, Collector Grade Publications, ISBN 0889351686, 9780889351684 (1993)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Rayle, Roy E., Random Shots: Episodes In The Life Of A Weapons Developer, Bennington, VT: Merriam Press, ISBN 9781435750210 (2008), pp. 95-95
  11. Washington Trends: National Affairs Newsweek, Vol. 42, 20 July 1953, p. 20
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 The T48 Automatic Rifle: The American FAL, Cruffler.com, retrieved 24 April 2012
  13. Hatcher, Julian S. (Maj. Gen.), Hatcher's Notebook, Harrisburg, PA: The Stackpole Company (1962), p. 496
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 , Emerson, Lee, M-14 Rifle History & Development, (Text Only Edition), (2009), pp. 37, 60-72
  15. Weapons of the Vietnam War. 173rdairborne.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-27.
  16. Emerson, Lee. M14 Rifle History. imageseek.com, 10 October 2006.
  17. M14 rifle / Mk.14 Mod.0 Enchanced Battle rifle (USA) world.guns.ru
  18. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
  19. 19.0 19.1 An Analysis of the Infantry's Need for an Assault Submachine Gun, page 9
  20. Rose, p. 387
  21. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  22. study. U.S. Army, 2009.
  23. http://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/US-sniper-war-in-afghanistan/
  24. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  25. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  26. *M14 Type Rifles*. Retrieved on September 24, 2008.
  27. Polytech M14 Rifle. Retrieved on September 24, 2008.
  28. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  29. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  30. Springfield Armory. Springfield Armory. Retrieved on 2011-09-27.

Further readingEdit

  • Duff, Scott A., John M. Miller, and contributing editor David C. Clark. The M14 Owner's Guide and Match Conditioning Instructions. Export, Penn.: Scott A. Duff Publications, 1996. ISBN 1-888722-07-X.
  • Murphy, Edward F. The Hill Fights: The First Battle of Khe Sanh. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 2003. ISBN 0891417478.
  • Pisor, Robert L. The End of the Line: The Siege of Khe Sanh. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2002. ISBN 0-393-32269-6.
  • Rose, Alexander. American Rifle: A Biography. New York: Bantam Dell Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0-553-80517-8.
  • Stevens, R. Blake. U.S. Rifle M14: From John Garand to the M21. Toronto: Collector Grade Publications, Inc., 1995. ISBN 0-88935-110-4.

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