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4.6×30mm
300px
From left to right: 4.6×30mm (Hollow Point), 5.7×28mm, .30 Carbine.
Type Personal defense weapon
Place of origin Flag of Germany.png Germany
Service history
In service 2001–present
Used by See Heckler & Koch MP7 Users
Wars Afghanistan War [1]
Production history
Manufacturer Heckler & Koch
Variants See Variations
Specifications
Case type Rimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter 4.65 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Neck diameter 5.31 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Shoulder diameter 7.75 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Base diameter 8.02 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Rim diameter 8.00 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Rim thickness 1.10 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Case length 30.50 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Overall length 38.50 mm (Bad rounding hereScript error in)
Rifling twist 160 mm (1 in 6.3 in)
Primer type Boxer Small Rifle[2]
Maximum pressure 400.00 MPa (Bad rounding hereScript error psi)
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
1.7 g (Bad rounding hereScript error gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (Combat Steel)725 m/s (Bad rounding hereScript error ft/s)447 J (Bad rounding hereScript error ft·lbf)
2.0 g (Bad rounding hereScript error gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (DM11, Ultimate Combat)720.0 m/s (Bad rounding hereScript error ft/s)506 J (Bad rounding hereScript error ft·lbf)
2.0 g (Bad rounding hereScript error gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (DM31)680 m/s (Bad rounding hereScript error ft/s)505 J (Bad rounding hereScript error ft·lbf)
2.7 g (Bad rounding hereScript error gr) FMJ (Full Metal Jacket)600 m/s (Bad rounding hereScript error ft/s)544 J (Bad rounding hereScript error ft·lbf)
2.0 g (Bad rounding hereScript error gr) Copper plated steel bullet AP (CPS Black Tip)735 m/s (Bad rounding hereScript error ft/s)525 J (Bad rounding hereScript error ft·lbf)
Test barrel length: 180 mm
Source(s): HK USA [3] HKPro [4] RUAG Ammotec [5] HK USA [6] Modern Firearms, Pistol / SMG ammunation [7] Heckler & Koch Products [8]

The HK 4.6×30mm cartridge is a type of ammunition used in the Heckler & Koch MP7 Personal Defense Weapon (PDW) and by the canceled HK UCP pistol. It is an indigenous German cartridge. It is designed to minimize weight and recoil while increasing penetration of body armor. It features a bottlenecked case and a pointed, steel-core, brass-jacketed bullet.

DevelopmentEdit

The 4.6×30mm cartridge was introduced in 1999.[9] It was designed as a competitor to FN Herstal's 5.7×28mm cartridge.[9]

OverviewEdit

Compared to conventional assault rifle cartridges one can carry more 4.6×30mm ammunition due to the lighter weight and relative small dimensions of the cartridge. Also, due to the lighter weight of the bullet, aiming in rapid fire is much easier as recoil depends much on the weight of the bullet. CRISAT testing shows that because of the smaller diameter and high projectile velocity of the round, body armor penetration is higher than that of traditional handgun projectiles.

The 4.6×30mm cartridge has been claimed to have low terminal effectiveness, especially by those who disagree with the "energy dump" theory of wound ballistics, such as Dr. Martin Fackler.Script error[citation needed] Kinetic energy manifests itself in human tissue in temporary stretching of tissue, which most tissue except for liver and neural tissue is able to withstand with little ill effect. Slow motion videos show that the 4.6 mm bullet yaws at impact on soft tissue. This is because the center of mass of the bullet is behind the geometric center, causing the back to come forward at impact, and therefore tumbling through soft tissue, creating much greater damage, according to the "energy dump" theory.

Testing done by HKPro in 2000 indicated that the 4.6×30mm cartridge penetrated deeper in 20% ballistic gelatin and transferred slightly more energy than the 5.7×28mm cartridge fired from the FN P90.[4] However, a more recent series of tests performed by NATO in the United Kingdom and France indicated that 5.7×28mm was the superior cartridge.[9] The results of the NATO tests were analyzed by a group formed of experts from France, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom and the group's conclusion was that the 5.7×28mm was "undoubtedly" the more efficient cartridge.[9]

Among other points, the NATO group cited superior effectiveness (27% greater) for the 5.7×28mm against unprotected targets and equal effectiveness against protected targets.[9] It also cited less sensitivity to extreme temperatures for the 5.7×28mm and cited a greater potential risk of barrel erosion with the 4.6×30mm.[9] In addition, the group pointed out that 5.7×28mm is close to the 5.56×45mm NATO by its design and manufacture process, allowing it to be manufactured on existing production lines.[9] The group also pointed out that 5.7×28mm weapons are more mature than 4.6×30mm weapons, and the 5.7×28mm FN Five-seven pistol was already in production at that time, while the 4.6×30mm Heckler & Koch UCP pistol was still only an early concept.[9] However, the German delegation and others rejected the NATO recommendation that 5.7×28mm be standardized, and as a result, the standardization process was indefinitely halted.[1][9]

Cartridge dimensionsEdit

The 4.6×30mm has 0.87 ml (13.4 grains) H2O cartridge case capacity.

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4.6×30mm maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).[10]

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 22 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 160 mm (1 in 6.3 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 4.52 mm, Ø grooves = 4.65 mm, land width = 1.21 mm and the primer type is small rifle.[2]

According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) guidelines, the 4.6×30mm case can handle up to 400 MPa (58,015 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every pistol cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.

The Belgian 5.7×28mm cartridge introduced in 1993 is probably the closest currently available ballistic twin of the 4.6×30mm.

VariationsEdit

2 g DM11 Penetrator Ultimate CombatEdit

The German Army version of the 4.6×30mm cartridge (DM11 Penetrator) weighs 6.5 g and uses a 2 g copper plated steel bullet projectile at 720 m/s (Script error ft/s) muzzle velocity. The DM11 Penetrator cartridge is designed for the MP7. The Ultimate Combat can penetrate the NATO CRISAT target at more than 300 meters.[4] This ammunition should combine energy transfer in soft targets and very good penetration.[11] The muzzle velocity V0 and V100 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.141 to 0.150 (BC's are somewhat debatable) making the DM11 projectile aerodynamically more efficient compared to typical service handgun projectiles, but less efficient compared to typical assault rifle projectiles. At the stated effective range of 200 m the DM11 projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.25 (425 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

DM11 cartridge technical data:[11][dead link]

  • Temperature range: between -54°C and +52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: minimum 720 m/s (Script error ft/s) / 506 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 100 m: 545 m/s / 297 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 100 m (with 240 mm barrel): 625 m/s (2050 ft/s)  / 365 Joule (270 ft·lbf), with CRISAT target after 100 m: 504 m/s (1676 ft/s)  / 224 Joule (182 ft·lbf)
  • Velocity 100 m (behind CRISAT target): 432 m/s (1417 ft/s)
  • Energy at 100 m (behind CRISAT target): 186 J (138 ft·lbf)[4]
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.141 - 0.150 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration at 50 m: mild steel plate 9 mm thickness
  • Penetration at 200 m: CRISAT NATO target (1.6 mm titanium plate + 20 layers of Kevlar)
  • Penetration in gelatine bare at 25: < 35 cm
  • Accuracy at 100 m: Ø 5 cm[3]
  • Effective range: 200 m (Script error ft)[12]
  • NATO CRISAT Armour penetration: +300 m (Script error ft)[4]

2 g Action Law Enforcement Hollow PointEdit

The Action 4.6×30mm Law Enforcement cartridge weighs 6.5 g and is loaded with a 2 g CuZn-alloy (brass) Solid Hollow Point projectile that achieves 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The cartridge is designed for the MP7. This ammunition is optimized for energy transfer in soft targets and should offer decent penetration performance on hard and combined targets like car doors or glass and body armour.[13] The muzzle velocity V0 and V50 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.112 to 0.119 (BC's are somewhat debatable). At the stated effective range of 200 m the 2 g Action projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.67 (586 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

Action Law Enforcement cartridge technical data:[14][dead link]

  • Temperature range: -30°C to + 52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: 700 m/s /480 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 50 m: 568 m/s / 322 Joule
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.112 - 0.119 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration in 20% gelatine: bare at 25 m: < 30 cm
  • Accuracy at 50 m: Ø 5 cm
  • Effective service range: 200 m (Script error ft)

2.7 g Full Metal Jacket 4.6×30mmEdit

The Ball 4.6×30mm cartridge weighs 7 g and is loaded with a 2.7 g Full Metal Jacket projectile with a PbSb – alloy core and a steel copper plated jacket that achieves 600 m/s (2,000 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The cartridge is designed for the MP7. This ammunition is optimized for energy transfer in soft targets and should offer good precision.[15] The muzzle velocity V0 and V100 indicate a G1 ballistic coefficient of approximately 0.171 to 0.187 (BC's are somewhat debatable). At the stated effective range of 200 m the 2.7 g Ball projectile will be travelling at approximately Mach 1.36 (463 m/s) under ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions at sea level (air density ρ = 1.225 kg/m3).

Ball cartridge technical data:[16][dead link]

  • Temperature range: between -54°C and +52°C
  • Velocity/energy at 0 m: 600 m/s / 544 Joule
  • Velocity/energy at 100 m: 463 m/s / 320 Joule
  • Ballistic coefficient C 1: 0.171 - 0.187 (ICAO)/(Army Metro)
  • Mean chamber pressure: max. 400 MPa
  • Penetration in gelatine bare at 25 m: < 35 cm
  • Accuracy at 100 m: Ø 8 cm
  • Effective range:~300 m (Script error ft) (HK claims that the FMJ round has more retained energy than the "Combat Steel" due to the FMJ's heavier projectile.)[4]

OthersEdit

VBR produces a 4.6×30mm 2-part controlled fragmenting projectile that is claimed to increase the content of the permanent wound cavity and double the chance to hit a vital organ.[17] Heckler & Koch claims that the CPS Black Tip ammunition made by Fiocchi has a muzzle energy of approximately 525 J that would be comparable to 9 mm rounds.[18][19]

See alsoEdit

WeaponsEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

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