Several rifle designs utilize an en bloc clip to load the firearm. With this design, both the cartridges and the clip are inserted as a unit into a fixed magazine within the rifle, and the clip is usually ejected or falls from the rifle upon firing or chambering of the last round. The en bloc clip was invented by two firearms inventors working on parallel lines, James Paris Lee for his Lee rifle of 1890, and Ferdinand Mannlicher for use in his M1885 rifle.
Other rifles utilizing a frequently improved en-bloc clip include the German 1888 Commission Rifle, the French 1890 Berthier Cavalry Carbine and later models (upgraded to 5 rounds in 1916), the Italian M1870 Italian Vetterli#M1870/87|M1870/87 Vetterli-Vitali and M91 Carcano, the various (Romanian, Dutch, Portuguese) turnbolt Mannlichers, the Austro-Hungarian straight-pull Steyr-Mannlicher M1895, the M1895 Lee Navy, the Hungarian 35M Mannlicher, and the US M1 Garand. Original Austrian Mannlicher clips were often uni-directional, but already the German 1888 Commission Rifle and subsequently the M 91 Carcano employed symmetrical clips, and much later John Pedersen developed an invertible, double-stacked clip for his Pedersen rifle. This design was also utilized for the competing design by John Garand.