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.276 Enfield
Type Rifle
Place of origin United Kingdom
Production history
Designer Royal Laboratory
Designed 1912
Produced 1912-1916
Specifications
Case type rimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter .282 in (Bad rounding hereScript error mm)
Base diameter .528 in (Bad rounding hereScript error mm)
Rim diameter .517 in (Bad rounding hereScript error mm)
Case length 2.35 in (Bad rounding hereScript error mm)
Overall length 3.23 in (Bad rounding hereScript error mm)
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
165 gr (Bad rounding hereScript error g) 2,800 ft/s (Bad rounding hereScript error m/s)2,888 ft·lbf (Bad rounding hereScript error J)
Source(s): [1]

The .276 Enfield was an experimental military rifle cartridge developed in conjunction with the Pattern 1913 Enfield (P'13) rifle. Development was discontinued by the onset of World War I.

HistoryEdit

Several developmental versions of ammunition were prepared beginning in 1910 before approximately 1,000 P'13 rifles with 600,000 rounds of RL18000C trials cartridges were distributed to troops in 1913. The troops' trials rifles and ammunition were distributed to the musketry school at Hythe, to one squadron in each of three cavalry regiments, and to one company in each of eight infantry battalions. One of the cavalry squadrons was stationed in South Africa and one of the infantry companies was stationed in Egypt. The remainder of the units were in the United Kingdom. Cartridges were packaged in 5-round stripper clips similar to those used by Mauser and M1903 Springfield rifles. Ball ammunition was loaded with 49.3 grains of cordite behind 165-grain cupronickel-jacketed spitzer bullets. Drill rounds containing no primer or powder have been reported in two versions. One has a tin-plated case with the standard bullet, and the other has a round-nose wood bullet with an unplated brass case. [1]

The troop trials reported the cartridge produced heavy recoil with undesirable muzzle flash and overheated rifle barrels. Overheating caused excessive barrel wear and some potentially dangerous pressure indications from cartridges pre-heated in hot barrels before firing. Rather than confront continued development of a new cartridge simultaneously with inevitable wartime production problems, the United Kingdom continued manufacturing .303 British caliber Lee-Enfield rifles as the standard military arm through the first world war. Canada, on the other hand, had some experience with the similar .280 Ross cartridge and appears to have taken interest in potential use of the P'13 rifles to arm newly mobilized troops. Canada contracted with Winchester Repeating Arms to manufacture ammunition until more suitable rifles became available for standard issue.[1]

Ammunition is known to have been manufactured by:[1]

Subsequent developmentsEdit

The P'13 rifle design was modified as the Pattern 14 Rifle (P'14) chambered for the .303 British cartridge. Production was initially assigned to Vickers; but tooling was shortly passed to United States manufacturers so Vickers could focus on machine gun production. Remington Arms and Winchester manufactured 1,233,075 P'14 rifles for the United Kingdom in 1915 and 1916. Remington subcontracted the largest share of production to the Baldwin Locomotive Works plant in Eddystone, Pennsylvania. The design was modified again as the M1917 Enfield rifle chambered for the .30-06 Springfield cartridge. Remington, Winchester and Baldwin manufactured 2,193,429 M1917 rifles for the United States.[2] Approximately 75% of the American Expeditionary Forces carried M1917 rifles into combat.[3] Nearly half of these M1917 rifles were sent to the United Kingdom as Lend-Lease in the early days of World War II. Remington modified the design again as the basis of their model 30, 30S, and 720 rifles for civilian production.[2]

The .276 Enfield case was necked up to .303 caliber for various armor-piercing bullet tests conducted in the United Kingdom between 1922 and 1935.[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Script error
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bodinson, Holt The P-14/M1917 Enfield: our most-issued WWI battle rifle was a British design in Guns Magazine January, 2007
  3. Canfield, Bruce N. American Rifleman (March 2009) p.38

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