|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (August 2009)|
.22 Short, left; .22 Long Rifle, right
|Place of origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Smith & Wesson|
|Bullet diameter||.222 in (Script error mm)|
|Neck diameter||.226 in (Script error mm)|
|Base diameter||.226 in (Script error mm)|
|Rim diameter||.278 in (Script error mm)|
|Rim thickness||.043 in (Script error mm)|
|Case length||.421 in (Script error mm)|
|Overall length||.695 in (Script error mm)|
|Rifling twist||1-20" or 1-24"|
|27 gr (Script error g) RN||1,164 ft/s (Script error m/s)||87 ft·lbf (Script error J)|
|29 gr (Script error g) RN||830 ft/s (Script error m/s)||44 ft·lbf (Script error J)|
|29 gr (Script error g) RN||1,132 ft/s (Script error m/s)||82 ft·lbf (Script error J)|
|Source(s): Cartridges of the World |
The original loading was a 29 grain (1.88 g) or 30 grain (1.94 g) bullet and 4 grains (260 mg) of black powder. The original .22 rimfire cartridge became designated the .22 Short with the introduction of the .22 Long cartridge in 1871.
Developed for self defense, the modern .22 Short, though still used in a few pocket pistols and mini-revolvers, is mainly used as a quiet round for practice by the recreational shooter. The .22 Short was popularly used in shooting galleries at fairs and arcades; several rifle makers produced "gallery" models for .22 Short exclusively. Due to its low recoil and good inherent accuracy, the .22 Short was used for the Olympic 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol event until 2004, and they were allowed in the shooting part of modern pentathlon competitions before it switched to air pistols.
Several makes of starting pistols use .22 Short blank cartridges.
Most .22 Short bullets are made of lead (usually coated with grease or wax, or copper-plated) in round nose or hollow point styles. Bullets for use at shooting galleries were often made of compressed powdered metal that disintegrated on impact to avoid ricochets and over-penetration of backstops. The standard velocity .22 Short launches a 29-grain (Script error g) bullet at 1,045 feet per second (Script error m/s) with 70 ft·lbf (95 J) of energy from a 22 in (559 mm) rifle barrel and can penetrate 2 inches (Script error mm) of soft pine.
As a hunting round, the high velocity hollow point Short is useful only for small game such as tree squirrels and rabbits. For small game hunting in general, the greater energy and wider ammunition selection of the .22 Long Rifle make it a more popular choice. In the American South, the .22 Short hollow point is still very popular for use on raccoons, which are treed at night using dogs and shooting is at close range. In some states, the .22 Short is the only legal round to use for such hunting.
Although the .22 Long Rifle has surpassed the .22 Short in the market place, many ammunition companies still produce .22 Shorts, and in a fairly wide variety. Most makers utilize the standard 29-grain (Script error g) solid round nose bullet and 27-grain (Script error g) hollow point bullet weights for the .22 short. CCI makes several types: a CB Short at 727 ft/s (Script error m/s), Target Shorts at 830 ft/s (Script error m/s), their standard Short round with plated round nose bullet at 1,080 ft/s (Script error m/s), and a high speed hunting load with plated hollow point bullet at 1,105 ft/s (Script error m/s). The .22 Short high-velocity exceeds the performance of the .22 Long and the .22 Short has displaced the .22 Long as an alternate to the .22 Long Rifle for many .22 shooters. Fiocchi makes their Exacta Compensated Super Match SM200 with lead round nose at 650 ft/s (Script error m/s). Remington produces a high velocity plated round nose at 1,095 ft/s (Script error m/s). Aguila makes both a match lead round nose at 1,095 ft/s (Script error m/s), and a "high speed" round with plated bullet also listed at 1,095 ft/s (Script error m/s). Also available is the fine RWS R25 match ammunition at 560 ft/s (Script error m/s). Eley also makes their Rapid Fire Match cartridge at 750 ft/s (Script error m/s).
Most of the target oriented and CB shorts are very quiet, due to being subsonic. When fired from a full-length rifle barrel, most .22 Short loadings are as quiet, if not quieter, than the average air rifle.
The Aguila SSS (SubSonic Sniper) round uses a .22 Short case with a 60-grain (Script error g) bullet (twice the weight of the .22 Short bullet and half again as heavy as the .22 Long Rifle bullet) giving an overall length of a .22 Long Rifle round, making categorizing the SSS problematic: while the SSS case size is .22 short, the firing chamber of the barrel must be .22 LR dimensions to accept the SSS cartridge.
.22 Short caliber riflesEdit
There have been many rifles chambered for the .22 Short over the years, but only several lever action rifles are currently chambered for this round, notably the Henry and Marlin lever action rifles. Many rifles in .22 Short were made between 1901–1940, mostly intended for gallery shooting and small game hunting. Remington and Winchester produced the most rifles in .22 Short. Remington has made their Model 24 and Model 241 "Speedmaster" semi-autos as well as their Model 12 and 121 "Fieldmaster" pump actions in .22 Short. Remington's Nylon 66GS Gallery Special (1962 to 1981) was one of the last .22 Short-only rifles made especially for shooting gallery use. Winchester produced a variety of different rifles in .22 Short caliber including the 1873 lever action, 1885 single shot (in both Low Wall and High Wall variations), Model 1890, 1906 and 62A pump actions, Model 74 semi-auto and the Model 61 pump action. Many of their bolt action rifles were available on a special order basis in .22 Short. Browning/FN also produced their dainty takedown semi-auto in .22 Short, on the same John Browning design upon which the Remington Model 24 is based.
Note that many of these rifles are now collectors’ items, particularly the Winchesters, and demand a premium in price over the same rifle chambered in .22 Long Rifle.
It should also be noted that many rifles marked ".22 Short, Long and Long Rifle" (or ".22 S, L, LR") will not shoot Short rounds with the same degree of accuracy as they will a Long Rifle nor as accurately as a rifle designed for .22 Short exclusively.Script error This is due to the excess chamber length needed to allow chambering of .22 LR cartridges. This requires the bullet from a .22 Short to travel a short distance before it engages the rifling, which is detrimental to accuracy.
- .22 BB
- .22 CB
- .22 Long
- .22 Extra Long
- .22 Long Rifle
- .22 Magnum
- List of rifle cartridges
- List of rimfire cartridges
- 5 mm caliber—Other cartridges of similar size.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Cartridges of the World 11th Edition, Book by Frank C. Barnes, Edited by Stan Skinner, Gun Digest Books, 2006, pp. 476, 490, 492. ISBN 0-89689-297-2.
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ e.g.: Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Approved Misc Regs and Codes (July 2002), page 9: "Raccoon may be hunted at night (with .22 short ammunition and the use of dogs)...."
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